ARKitecture of Econ-ARK#

This document guides you through the structure of Econ-ARK, and explains the main ingredients. Note that it does not explain how to use it—for this, please follow the example notebooks which you can find on the left.

Econ-ARK contains the three main repositories HARK, DemARK, and REMARK. On top of that, the website combines all of them. Hence, if you want to find a notebook search them in materials.

  • HARK: Includes the source code as well as some example notebooks.

  • DemARK: Here you can find Demonstrations of tools, AgentTypes, and ModelClasses.

  • REMARK: Here you can find R[eplications/eproductions] and Explorations Made using ARK.

Before describing each repository in detail, some preliminary remarks.

HARK is written in Python, an object-oriented programming (OOP) language that has experienced increasing popularity in the scientific community in the past several years. A significant reason for the adoption of Python is the numpy and scipy packages, which offer a wide array of mathematical and statistical functions and tools; HARK makes liberal use of these libraries. Python’s object-oriented nature allows models in HARK to be easily extended: more complex models can inherit functions and methods from more fundamental ‘’parent’’ models, eliminating the need to reproduce or repurpose code.

We strongly encourage HARK users to use the conda or mamba package managers, which includes all commonly used mathematical and scientific Python packages.

For users unfamiliar with OOP, we strongly encourage you to review the background material on OOP provided by the good people at QuantEcon (for more on them, see below) at this link: Object Oriented Programming. Unlike non-OOP languages, OOP bundles together data and functions into objects. These can be accessed via: and object_name.method_name(), respectively. For organizational purposes, definitions of multiple objects are stored in modules, which are simply files with a .py extension. Modules can be accessed in Python via:

import module_name as import_name

This imports the module and gives it a local name of import_name. We can access a function within this module by simply typing: import_name.function_name(). The following example will illustrate the usage of these commands. CRRAutility is the function object for calculating CRRA utility supplied by the HARK.rewards module. CRRAutility is called attributes of the module HARK.rewards. In order to calculate CRRA utility with a consumption of 1 and a coefficient of risk aversion of 2 we run:

from HARK.rewards import CRRAutility

CRRAutility(1, 2)

Python modules in HARK can generally be categorized into three types: tools, models, and applications. Tool modules contain functions and classes with general purpose tools that have no inherent ‘’economic content’’, but that can be used in many economic models as building blocks or utilities; they could plausibly be useful in non-economic settings. Tools might include functions for data analysis (e.g. calculating Lorenz shares from data, or constructing a non-parametric kernel regression), functions to create and manipulate discrete approximations to continuous distributions, or classes for constructing interpolated approximations to non-parametric functions. Tool modules generally reside in HARK’s root directory and have names like HARK.simulation and HARK.interpolation; they do not necessarily do anything when run.

Model modules specify particular economic models, including classes to represent agents in the model (and the ‘’market structure’’ in which they interact) and functions for solving the ‘’one period problem’’ of those models. For example, concerns consumption-saving models in which agents have CRRA utility over consumption and face idiosyncratic shocks to permanent and transitory income. The module includes classes for representing ‘’types’’ of consumers, along with functions for solving (several flavors of) the one period consumption-saving problem. When run, model modules might demonstrate example specifications of their models, filling in the model parameters with arbitrary values. When is run, it specifies an infinite horizon consumer with a particular discount factor, permanent income growth rate, coefficient of relative risk aversion (etc), who faces lognormal shocks to permanent and transitory income each period with a particular standard deviation; it then solves this consumer’s problem and graphically displays the results. Model modules generally have Model in their name.


After you installed and cloned the repository of HARK, you can explore the content of it. In the subfolder HARK, you can find a range of general purpose tools, as well as the next subfolder ConsumptionSaving which has AgentType Classes and Market Classes.

General Purpose Tools#

HARK’s root directory contains six tool modules, [1] each containing a variety of functions and classes that can be used in many economic models– or even for mathematical purposes that have nothing to do with economics. Some of the tool modules are very sparely populated at this time, while others are quite large. We expect that all of these modules will grow considerably in the near future, as new tools are ‘’low hanging fruit’’ for contribution to the project. [2]


A key goal of the project is to create modularity and interoperability between models, making them easy to combine, adapt, and extend. To this end, the HARK.core module specifies a framework for economic models in HARK, creating a common structure for them on two levels that can be called ‘’microeconomic’’ and ‘’macroeconomic’’.

Microeconomic models in HARK use the AgentType class to represent agents with an intertemporal optimization problem. Each of these models specifies a subclass of AgentType; an instance of the subclass represents agents who are ex-ante homogeneous– they have common values for all parameters that describe the problem. For example, ConsIndShockModel specifies the IndShockConsumerType class, which has methods specific to consumption-saving models with idiosyncratic shocks to income; an instance of the class might represent all consumers who have a CRRA of 3, discount factor of 0.98, etc. The AgentType class has a solve method that acts as a ‘’universal microeconomic solver’’ for any properly formatted model, making it easier to set up a new model and to combine elements from different models; the solver is intended to encompass any model that can be framed as a sequence of one period problems. For a complete description, see section AgentType Class.

Macroeconomic models in HARK use the Market class to represent a market (or other aggregator) that combines the actions, states, and/or shocks (generally, outcomes) of individual agents in the model into aggregate outcomes that are ‘’passed back’’ to the agents. For example, the market in a consumption-saving model might combine the individual asset holdings of all agents in the market to generate aggregate capital in the economy, yielding the interest rate on assets (as the marginal product of capital); the individual agents then learn the aggregate capital level and interest rate, conditioning their next action on this information. Objects that microeconomic agents treat as exogenous when solving (or simulating) their model are thus endogenous at the macroeconomic level. Like AgentType, the Market class also has a solve method, which seeks out a dynamic general equilibrium: a ‘’rule’’ governing the dynamic evolution of macroeconomic objects such that if agents believe this rule and act accordingly, then their collective actions generate a sequence of macroeconomic outcomes that justify the belief in that rule. For a more complete description, see section Market Class.

Beyond the model frameworks, HARK.core also defines a ‘’supersuperclass’’ called HARKobject. When solving a dynamic microeconomic model with an infinite horizon (or searching for a dynamic general equilibrium), it is often required to consider whether two solutions are sufficiently close to each other to warrant stopping the process (i.e. approximate convergence). It is thus necessary to calculate the ‘’distance’’ between two solutions, so HARK specifies that classes should have a distance method that takes a single input and returns a non-negative value representing the (generally dimensionless) distance between the object in question and the input to the method. As a convenient default, HARKobject provides a ‘’universal distance metric’’ that should be useful in many contexts. [3] When defining a new subclass of HARKobject, the user simply defines the attribute distance_criteria as a list of strings naming the attributes of the class that should be compared when calculating the distance between two instances of that class. For example, the class ConsumerSolution has distance_criteria = [‘cFunc’], indicating that only the consumption function attribute of the solution matters when comparing the distance between two instances of ConsumerSolution. See here for further documentation.


The HARK.utilities module carries a double meaning in its name, as it contains both utility functions (and their derivatives, inverses, and combinations thereof) in the economic modeling sense as well as utilities in the sense of general tools. Utility functions included at this time are constant relative risk aversion and constant absolute risk aversion. Other functions in HARK.utilities include some data manipulation tools (e.g. for calculating an average of data conditional on being within a percentile range of different data), functions for constructing discrete state space grids, convenience functions for retrieving information about functions, and basic plotting tools using matplotlib.pyplot.

The module also includes functions for constructing discrete approximations to continuous distributions (e.g. approxLognormal() to approximate a log-normal distribution) as well as manipulating these representations (e.g. appending one outcome to an existing distribution, or combining independent univariate distributions into one multivariate distribution). As a convention in HARK, continuous distributions are approximated as finite discrete distributions when solving models; an N-dimensional random variable is formatted as a length N+1 list of 1D arrays, with the first element representing event probabilities and all other elements are realizations of the N component RVs. This both simplifies solution methods (reducing numeric integrals to simple dot products) and allows users to easily test whether their chosen degree of discretization yields a sufficient approximation to the full distribution. See here for further documentation.


The HARK.interpolation module defines classes for representing interpolated function approximations. Interpolation methods in HARK all inherit from a superclass such as HARKinterpolator1D or HARKinterpolator2D, wrapper classes that ensures interoperability across interpolation methods. For example, HARKinterpolator1D specifies the methods _call_ and derivative to accept an arbitrary array as an input and return an identically shaped array with the interpolated function evaluated at the values in the array or its first derivative, respectively. However, these methods do little on their own, merely reshaping arrays and referring to the _evaluate and _der methods, which are not actually defined in HARKinterpolator1D. Each subclass of HARKinterpolator1D specifies their own implementation of _evaluate and _der particular to that interpolation method, accepting and returning only 1D arrays. In this way, subclasses of HARKinterpolator1D are easily interchangeable with each other, as all methods that the user interacts with are identical, varying only by ‘’internal’’ methods.

When evaluating a stopping criterion for an infinite horizon problem, it is often necessary to know the ‘’distance’’ between functions generated by successive iterations of a solution procedure. To this end, each interpolator class in HARK must define a distance method that takes as an input another instance of the same class and returns a non-negative real number representing the ‘’distance’’ between the two. As each of the HARKinterpolatorXD classes inherits from HARKobject, all interpolator classes have the default ‘’universal’’ distance method; the user must simply list the names of the relevant attributes in the attribute distance_criteria of the class.

Interpolation methods currently implemented in HARK include (multi)linear interpolation up to 4D, 1D cubic spline interpolation, (multi)linear interpolation over 1D interpolations (up to 4D total), (multi)linear interpolation over 2D interpolations (up to 4D total), linear interpolation over 3D interpolations, 2D curvilinear interpolation over irregular grids, and a 1D ‘’lower envelope’’ interpolator. See here for further documentation.


The HARK.simulation module provides tools for generating simulated data or shocks for post-solution use of models. Currently implemented distributions include normal, lognormal, Weibull (including exponential), uniform, Bernoulli, and discrete. As an example of their use, these tools are used in the consumption-saving models of to simulate permanent and transitory income shocks as well as unemployment events. See here for further documentation.


Methods for optimizing an objective function for the purposes of estimating a model can be found in HARK.estimation. As of this writing, the implementation includes only minimization by the Nelder-Mead simplex method, minimization by a derivative-free Powell method variant, and two small tools for resampling data (i.e. for a bootstrap); the minimizers are merely convenience wrappers (with result reporting) for optimizers included in scipy.optimize. Future functionality will include more robust global search methods, including genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, and differential evolution. See here for full documentation.


By default, processes in Python are single-threaded, using only a single CPU core. The HARK.parallel module provides basic tools for using multiple CPU cores simultaneously, with minimal effort. [4] In particular, it provides the function multiThreadCommands, which takes two arguments: a list of **AgentType**s and a list of commands as strings; each command should be a method of the **AgentType**s. The function simply distributes the **AgentType**s across threads on different cores and executes each command in order, returning no output (the **AgentType**s themselves are changed by running the commands). Equivalent results would be achieved by simply looping over each type and running each method in the list. Indeed, HARK.parallel also has a function called multiThreadCommandsFake that does just that, with identical syntax to multiThreadCommands; multithreading in HARK can thus be easily turned on and off. [5] The module also has functions for a parallel implementation of the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm, as described in Wiswall and Lee (2011). See here for full documentation.

AgentType Class#

The core of our microeconomic dynamic optimization framework is a flexible object-oriented representation of economic agents. The HARK.core module defines a superclass called AgentType; each model defines a subclass of AgentType, specifying additional model-specific features and methods while inheriting the methods of the superclass. Most importantly, the method solve acts as a ‘’universal solver’’ applicable to any (properly formatted) discrete time model. This section describes the format of an instance of AgentType as it defines a dynamic microeconomic problem. Note that each instance of AgentType represents an ex-ante heterogeneous ‘’type’’ of agent; ex-post heterogeneity is achieved by simulating many agents of the same type, each of whom receives a unique sequence of shocks.

Attributes of an AgentType#

A discrete time model in our framework is characterized by a sequence of ‘’periods’’ that the agent will experience. A well-formed instance of AgentType includes the following attributes:

  • solveOnePeriod: A function, or a list of functions, representing the solution method for a single period of the agent’s problem. The inputs passed to a solveOnePeriod function include all data that characterize the agent’s problem in that period, including the solution to the subsequent period’s problem (designated as solution_next). The output of these functions is a single Solution object, which can be passed to the solver for the previous period.

  • time_inv: A list of strings containing all of the variable names that are passed to at least one function in solveOnePeriod but do not vary across periods. Each of these variables resides in a correspondingly named attribute of the AgentType instance.

  • time_vary: A list of strings naming the attributes of this instance that vary across periods. Each of these attributes is a list of period-specific values, which should be of the same length. If the solution method varies across periods, then ‘solveOnePeriod’ is an element of time_vary. [6]

  • solution_terminal: An object representing the solution to the ‘’terminal’’ period of the model. This might represent a known trivial solution that does not require numeric methods, the solution to some previously solved ‘’next phase’’ of the model, a scrap value function, or an initial guess of the solution to an infinite horizon model.

  • pseudo_terminal: A Boolean flag indicating that solution_terminal is not a proper terminal period solution (rather an initial guess, ‘’next phase’’ solution, or scrap value) and should not be reported as part of the model’s solution.

  • cycles: A non-negative integer indicating the number of times the agent will experience the sequence of periods in the problem. For example, cycles = 1 means that the sequence of periods is analogous to a lifecycle model, experienced once from beginning to end; cycles = 2 means that the agent experiences the sequence twice, with the first period in the sequence following the last. An infinite horizon problem in which the sequence of periods repeats indefinitely is indicated with cycles = 0.

  • tolerance: A positive real number indicating convergence tolerance, representing the maximum acceptable ‘’distance’’ between successive cycle solutions in an infinite horizon model; it is irrelevant when cycles > 0. As the distance metric on the space of solutions is model-specific, the value of tolerance is generally dimensionless.

  • time_flow: A Boolean flag indicating the direction that time is ‘’flowing.’’ When True, the variables listed in time_vary are listed in ordinary chronological order, with index 0 being the first period; when False, these lists are in reverse chronological order, with index 0 holding the last period.

An instance of AgentType also has the attributes named in time_vary and time_inv, and may have other attributes that are not included in either (e.g. values not used in the model solution, but instead to construct objects used in the solution).

A Universal Solver#

When an instance of AgentType invokes its solve method, the solution to the agent’s problem is stored in the attribute solution. The solution is computed by recursively solving the sequence of periods defined by the variables listed in time_vary and time_inv using the functions in solveOnePeriod. The time-varying inputs are updated each period, including the successive period’s solution as solution_next; the same values of time invariant inputs in time_inv are passed to the solver in every period. The first call to solveOnePeriod uses solution_terminal as solution_next. In a finite horizon problem, the sequence of periods is solved cycles times over; in an infinite horizon problem, the sequence of periods is solved until the solutions of successive cycles have a ‘’distance’’ of less than tolerance.

The output from a function in solveOnePeriod is an instance of a model-specific solution class. The attributes of a solution to one period of a problem might include behavioral functions, (marginal) value functions, and other variables characterizing the result. Each solution class must have a method called distance(), which returns the ‘’distance’’ between itself and another instance of the same solution class, so as to define convergence as a stopping criterion; for many models, this will be the ‘’distance’’ between a policy or value function in the solutions. If the solution class is defined as a subclass of HARKobject, it automatically inherits the default distance method, so that the user must only list the relevant object attributes in distance_criteria.

The AgentType also has methods named preSolve and postSolve, both of which take no arguments and do absolutely nothing. A subclass of AgentType can overwrite these blank methods with its own model specific methods. preSolve is automatically called near the beginning of the solve method, before solving the sequence of periods. It is used for specifying tasks that should be done before solving the sequence of periods, such as pre-constructing some objects repeatedly used by the solution method or finding an analytical terminal period solution. For example, the IndShockConsumerType class in ConsIndShockModel has a preSolve method that calls its updateSolutionTerminal method to ensure that solution_terminal is consistent with the model parameters. The postSolve method is called shortly after the sequence of periods is fully solved; it can be used for ‘’post-processing’’ of the solution or performing a step that is only useful after solution convergence. For example, the TractableConsumerType in TractableBufferStockModel has a postSolve method that constructs an interpolated consumption function from the list of stable arm points found during solution.

Our universal solver is written in a very general way that should be applicable to any discrete time optimization problem– because Python is so flexible in defining objects, the time-varying inputs for each period can take any form. Indeed, the solver does no ‘’real work’’ itself, but merely provides a structure for describing models in the HARK framework, allowing interoperability among current and future modules.

The Flow of Time and Other Methods#

Because dynamic optimization problems are solved recursively in our framework, it is natural to list time-varying values in reverse chronological order– the solve() method loops over the values in each time-varying list in the same direction that a human would read them. When simulating agents after the solution has been obtained, however, it is much more convenient for time-varying parameters to be listed in ordinary chronological order– the direction in which they will be experienced by simulated agents. To allow the user to set the order in which ‘’time is flowing’’ for an instance of ***AgentType, the HARK framework includes functionality to easily change ordering of time-varying values.

The attribute time_flow is True if variables are listed in ordinary chronological order and False otherwise. AgentType has the following methods for manipulating time:

  • timeReport(): Prints to screen a description of the direction that time is flowing, for interactive convenience and as a reminder of the functionality.

  • timeFlip(): Flips the direction of time. Each attribute listed in time_vary is reversed in place, and the value of time_flow is toggled.

  • timeFwd(): Sets the direction of time to ordinary chronological order.

  • timeRev(): Sets the direction of time to reverse chronological order.

These methods are invoked to more conveniently access time-varying objects. When a new time-varying attribute is added, its name should be appended to time_vary, particularly if its values are used in the solution of the model (or is part of the solution itself). For example, the solve() method automatically adds the string ‘solution’ to time_vary if it is not already present. Note that attributes listed in time_vary must be lists if solve() or timeFlip() are used. Some values that could be considered ‘’time varying’’ but are never used to solve the model are more conveniently represented as a numpy.array object (e.g. the history of a state or control variable from a simulation); because the numpy.array class does not have a reverse() method, these attributes should not be listed in time_vary.

The base AgentType is sparsely defined, as most ‘’real’’ methods will be application-specific. Two final methods bear mentioning. First, the _call_ method points to assignParameters(), a convenience method for adding or adjusting attributes (inherited from HARKobject). This method takes any number of keyword arguments, so that code can be parsimoniously written as, for example, AgentInstance(attribute1 = value1, attribute2 = value2). Using Python’s dictionary capabilities, many attributes can be conveniently set with minimal code. Second, the resetRNG method simply resets the AgentType’s random number generator (as the attribute RNG) using the value in the attribute seed. [7] This method is useful for (inter alia) ensuring that the same underlying sequence of shocks is used for every simulation run when a model is solved or estimated.

Market Class#

The modeling framework of AgentType is deemed ‘’microeconomic’’ because it pertains only to the dynamic optimization problem of agents, treating all inputs of the problem as exogenously fixed. In what we label as ‘’macroeconomic’’ models, some of the inputs for the microeconomic models are endogenously determined by the collective states and controls of agents in the model. In a dynamic general equilibrium, there must be consistency between agents’ beliefs about these macroeconomic objects, their individual behavior, and the realizations of the macroeconomic objects that result from individual choices.

The Market class in HARK.core provides a framework for such macroeconomic models, with a solve method that searches for a dynamic general equilibrium. An instance of Market includes a list of **AgentType**s that compose the economy, a method for transforming microeconomic outcomes (states, controls, and/or shocks) into macroeconomic outcomes, and a method for interpreting a history or sequence of macroeconomic outcomes into a new ‘’dynamic rule’’ for agents to believe. Agents treat the dynamic rule as an input to their microeconomic problem, conditioning their optimal policy functions on it. A dynamic general equilibrium is a fixed point dynamic rule: when agents act optimally while believing the equilibrium rule, their individual actions generate a macroeconomic history consistent with the equilibrium rule.

Down on the Farm#

The Market class uses a farming metaphor to conceptualize the process for generating a history of macroeconomic outcomes in a model. Suppose all AgentTypes in the economy believe in some dynamic rule (i.e. the rule is stored as attributes of each AgentType, which directly or indirectly enters their dynamic optimization problem), and that they have each found the solution to their microeconomic model using their solve method. Further, the macroeconomic and microeconomic states have been reset to some initial orientation.

To generate a history of macroeconomic outcomes, the Market repeatedly loops over the following steps a set number of times:

  • sow: Distribute the macroeconomic state variables to all **AgentType**s in the market.

  • cultivate: Each AgentType executes their marketAction method, likely corresponding to simulating one period of the microeconomic model.

  • reap: Microeconomic outcomes are gathered from each AgentType in the market.

  • mill: Data gathered by reap is processed into new macroeconomic states according to some ‘’aggregate market process’’.

  • store: Relevant macroeconomic states are added to a running history of outcomes.

This procedure is conducted by the makeHistory method of Market as a subroutine of its solve method. After making histories of the relevant macroeconomic variables, the market then executes its calcDynamics function with the macroeconomic history as inputs, generating a new dynamic rule to distribute to the **AgentType**s in the market. The process then begins again, with the agents solving their updated microeconomic models given the new dynamic rule; the solve loop continues until the ‘’distance’’ between successive dynamic rules is sufficiently small.

Attributes of a Market#

To specify a complete instance of Market, the user should give it the following attributes: [8]

  • agents: A list of **AgentType**s, representing the agents in the market. Each element in agents represents an ex-ante heterogeneous type; each type could have many ex-post heterogeneous agents.

  • sow_vars: A list of strings naming variables that are output from the aggregate market process, representing the macroeconomic outcomes. These variables will be distributed to the agents in the sow step.

  • reap_vars: A list of strings naming variables to be collected from the agents in the reap step, to be used as inputs for the aggregate market process.

  • const_vars: A list of strings naming variables used by the aggregate market process that do not come from agents; they are constant or come from the Market itself.

  • track_vars: A list of strings naming variables generated by the aggregate market process that should be tracked as a history, to be used when calculating a new dynamic rule. Usually a subset of sow_vars.

  • dyn_vars: A list of strings naming the variables that constitute a dynamic rule. These will be stored as attributes of the agents whenever a new rule is calculated.

  • millRule: A function for the ‘’aggregate market process’’, transforming microeconomic outcomes into macroeconomic outcomes. Its inputs are named in reap_vars and const_vars, and it returns a single object with attributes named in sow_vars and/or track_vars. Can be defined as a method of a subclass of Market.

  • calcDynamics: A function that generates a new dynamic rule from a history of macroeconomic outcomes. Its inputs are named in track_vars, and it returns a single object with attributes named in dyn_vars.

  • act_T: The number of times that the makeHistory method should execute the ‘’farming loop’’ when generating a new macroeconomic history.

  • tolerance: The minimum acceptable ‘’distance’’ between successive dynamic rules produced by calcDynamics to constitute a sufficiently converged solution.

Further, each AgentType in agents must have two methods not necessary for microeconomic models; neither takes any input (except self):

  • marketAction: The microeconomic process to be run in the cultivate step. Likely uses the new macroeconomic outcomes named in sow_vars; should store new values of relevant microeconomic outcomes in the attributes (of self) named in reap_vars.

  • reset: Reset, initialize, or prepare for a new ‘’farming loop’’ to generate a macroeconomic history. Might reset its internal random number generator, set initial state variables, clear personal histories, etc.

When solving macroeconomic models in HARK, the user should also define classes to represent the output from the aggregate market process in millRule and for the model-specific dynamic rule. The latter should have a distance method to test for solution convergence; if the class inherits from HARKobject, the user need only list relevant attributes in distance_criteria.


If you want to get a feeling for how the code works and what you can do with it, check out the DemARK repository which contains many useful demonstrations of tools, AgentTypes, and ModelClasses.

If you want to run the notebooks on your own machine make sure to install the necessary packages described in the readme file. Afterwards you can dive in the notebook folder. Each example has a markdown (.md) version with explanatory notes. The notebook (.ipynb) describes the method and runs (part of the) code.


HARK can be used to replicate papers as well. For this purpose the R[eplications/eproductions] and Explorations Made using ARK (REMARK) repository was created.

Each replication consists of a metadata file (.md) with an overview, a notebook which replicates the paper, and a requirement.txt file with the necessary packages to run the notebooks on your local mashine.